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The American Psychological Association (APA) style is most commonly used for social science type classes, as the name would suggest.  This information should serve for most classes at Ranger College.  If you have a requirement for higher level formatting, including a title page, page numbers, or abstract, refer to the Purdue Online Writing Lab.

The APA homepage has a lot of parts but your primary concern will be formatting footnotes and bibliographic notations.  There is an excellent set of handouts and guides available to answer your questions and provide examples.


APA does not use footnotes.  Inline citations are the only option and require the author and date of publication instead of a page number (Cozart, 1982).  It goes inside the period.  This is true even when there are "quotation marks" (Jones, 7).

It can also be placed inside a sentence, disrupting the flow of reading (Smith, 1945) even further.  One feature of APA that is interesting is that you can skip the whole citation by mentioning the author or title directly in the sentence.  For example, Meriwether Lewis (1804) believed there were thousands of new plants to be discovered in the new acquired territory.

While page numbers are one of the most important aspects of a citation, enabling a reader to find the source, they are not a requirement of APA style.


Footnote:  (Jerrentrup, et al., 2018)

Bibliographic notation: 

Jerrentrup, A., Mueller, T., Glowalla, U., Herder, M., Henrichs, N., Neubauer, A., & Schaefer, J. R.  (2018).  Teaching medicine with the help of “Dr. House.”  PLoS ONE, 13(3),  Article e0193972.

diagram of APA citation

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